GOLD – lost in Siberia / GOUD – vergeten in Siberië / ЗОЛОТО – потеряно в Сибири (1994)

GOLD – lost in Siberia /  GOUD – vergeten in Siberië /  ЗОЛОТО – потеряно в Сибири  (1994)

In Siberia they know the saying…. “We have winter for 12 months per year. And the rest… …Summer. Summer. Summer” I like these kind of sayings ***GOLD*** ***боль*** **lost in Siberia** Remarkable too: How far one might travel in Siberia… …-and it is is a godforsaken big continent-… How long one might sit and wait before arrival How many invisible time-zones one might have passed One meets the same people, over and over again Acquintances, it seems One does not know them, really… …but they seem so familiar As if they’d sat next to you in a bus, back home Nothing alien, or exotic. Ordinary Funny or boring. Ugly or interesting They could have been friends, even This is a story on very ordinary people:.. ” In Siberia Due To Circumstances ” Since, we should never forget… …nobody, nobody, nobody… …is here, by chance Even been born here… – that even been an accident… …out of drunkenness, or out of love. Even then… Then the parents got here ‘by certain accident’ Exiled, or so Or left behind… …after the labor camps closed down Or… …still -a little voluntarily Out of idealism, perhaps Or greed This remained a fact:.. …those who went to Siberia, and survived… …knew that they could bear a lot In Siberia the pioneer’s spirit prevailed One had to fend for oneself And that was more than ever could be allowed… …in the rest of the Soviet Union, those days: Personal Initiative So ‘Siberia’ meant ‘freedom’ too. In a way Funny notion Reflecting on it “Kolyma District has been known for three centuries” “With 500 thousand square kilometers… …it is 1,5 times the size of Japan” “Its remoteness, its tough climate and its marshy taiga… …has given Kolyma a bad name” “To this godforsaken area the czar deported… …his most treacherous political opponents” All cliches on Siberia, are true It is just terrible Good. Shall we start ? How shall we start ? At the beginning But where does it start ? ‘Creation’ -itself, maybe ? The spot where God dropped His gold… …when He noticed -disappointedly-… …It was “Nót Good”, that First Day And tried to create something better, somewhere else This seems another of those Siberian jokes. But no… …this is a vintage myth… …told by local inhabitants, generation after generation So the nomads… …could they be a beginning ? This is it. Shall I put it on ? – No no no – What kind of a medal is this ? For good labor -Did the sovkhoz reward it to you ? Medal. For good labor – How long have you been living here ? All my life For work From 1915 ? – Did your life change when the Russians came ? Of course it changed. Couldn’t be more different It was not just terrible Before, we ate different food We had no wheat, no sugar, no tea We drank soup. We ate reindeer meat Fish and reindeer. Without salt The Russians brought a lot Vegetables, tea, salt Teachers – That was good ? – Or not ? – Was it good the Russians came ? It was good First, we had to learn talk Russian We couldn’t understand their talking They just signalled: Come… Food… Taste… Sweet.. tasted good Or did things turned sour, when it became clear… …that Kolyma held the world’s largest gold deposits ? “The treasures of Kolyma… …were only hinted at by scientists and adventurers” “Rumours rushed gold-diggers to Kolyma” Or did it start with the first Komsomol-volunteers ? We arrived here on the first ship in 1933 – The first ship ever coming in ? Yes. That year’s : 1933 Who claims to be the first ? Who’s put Kolyma on the world map ? The first convicts ? Stalin, may be ? Or is that besides the point ? Who was first The issue being : Noting or nobody claims itself to be more important… …or more valuable, than something or somebody else Here communist learning shows exceptional success : “All Values Deemed Void” Thus Soviet man, and his decendants, are not aware… …of the value of anything Thus, things beautiful can be ugly, as well Everything special can be trivial And the most absurd can be ordinary ” I’m living in house block 9″ ” Schoollane, dwelling number 1 ” ” Where under a bleak northern sunlight ” ” In the hills, Magadan arose ” ” Its streets covered with snow ” ” The town rests thus, white adorned and clean ” ” While the streets are swept by the Magadan breeze” ” Children grow up and disperse… …into the wide, wild world” ” But dearest on earth remains… …their own, beloved Magadan” ” All what’s noticed all along… …I address here in my song… …and is joined happily, when sung… …by our own Magadan breeze ” Vadim Kozin is said to have been exceptionally famous Ever Like a Sinatra or a Pavarotti Everybody knew his name in the Soviet Union Performed all over. Full house, everywhere Moscow. Leningrad – Vadim, how long have you been living in Magadan ? I have been living in Magadan for half a century I always said: I’ll never leave Magadan I have been invited to Moscow. And to Leningrad… But I said: I will never leave Magadan – Do you like it here ? That is not the point. I love Magadan… …and I wish to die here. That’s all The Kremlin… Roosevelt was there… Churchill was there… Stalin was there… General De Gaulle was there… …and lots of other people I don’t even know them all… …but they were all very important I sang there often And so after one performance…. ….someone came up to me, saying.. “Please, could you stay a moment and wait ?” – What kind of songs did you sing for Stalin ? Gypsy romances and Russian folk songs He himself sung too. Folk songs – For example ? I accompanied and he sang ‘Caucasian Sorrow’ ” Retatouchi went to Nyuchi… ….who was living in a shack” ” With a little daughter as result” ” I’ll never go see Nyuchi anymore” ” Light headed I lost my wits” ” Plunging my laundry in her stream” ” Doing my very best” ” Kissing her passionately” ” Losing my trousers in due course” ” Lightheaded I lost my wits” – Stalin liked singing that ? – Folk songs These were the songs sung those days Stalin himself sang those I’m just giving you a lead of what he sang This is a song I remember well – Did you like Stalin ? For me he was a good man I don’t know how he’s been to others… For me, he was a good man… …friendly… …tactful. He could be tactful Perhaps he was a little… Perhaps he did some… There were good people. Famous people… – He sent you to Siberia ! – Who ? -Stalin ! What did he do ? – Stalin exiled you. Didn’t he ? Well. Then I’ll repeat once more… After my great concerts in the Kremlin… I gave great concerts in the Kremlin – Vadim, do you remember how they arrested you ? No, this is useless. Nonsense They did not come and pick me up in any special way It did not go like this and that Someone quietly came up to me and said: So and so… – But why were you arrested ? – What ? How can I know why they’ve arrested me ? We’ll come to it The important thing is… Oh, you speak so much… I was called for by Beria He said: Vadim you sing for Stalin… …and that is not all Stalin sings folk songs with you too I replied: Yes But why do you only sing songs on Stalin ? And why not one on Lenin ? I said: That is not true I do have a song on Lenin too The one song on Lenin I always sing at all my concerts I sing songs on Stalin, and this special one on Lenin Written by Demyan ‘the poor’ Bedny – a pen name His real name Pridvorov meant ‘courtier’ – But how did you wind up in Siberia ? Wait a minute Do not ask such unexpected questions Let me finally speak I am over ninety years of age, dear I am tense and I tend to forget what I want to say So Beria asked me: Why ? I said: I sing one song on Lenin Written by Demyan Bedny ” It was an ordinary day… …dressed in mists of grey” In a low voice ” It was an ordinary day… Last chorus went:… ” It was an ordinary day… …Russia wasn’t even aware” ” When the czar crossed himself… …that ordinary day… …Lenin was born, on Wolga’s banks” This is the song on Lenin I have, and that’s what I sing That’s it So only one song ? – Yes So no other ? – No – And for that you were exiled ? I do not know why I had to leave to the spa Magadan Period. And I left for Magadan Someone came up to me saying I had to go to Magadan I would not be interned. I could quietly settle there And I left ” The headwaters of Kolyma River can be reached… …via Bering Street and the mouth of the river” ” Due to ice drift in the Chukchi Sea… …this can be done only, during 2 months in the year” ” The other route: from Vladivostok… ….to the Bay of Nagayevo, in the Sea of Ochotsk” Ivan Lukin was young, when he arrived here in 1933 What age he might have been ? 22 ? 24 ? On the first ship breaking the ice of the bay, that year Must have been June. Then the ice starts melting June 1933 Singing along. Communal singing of the youngsters Revolutionary songs The ship was escorted by seals They are very curious animals When they heard singing, they emerged… …and they swam along with the ship to the anchorage He’d travelled all the way… ….from the other side of the continent Plus a boat trip of another week. Voluntarily – Were there convicts on board too ? No. Just volunteers We stayed on the innerdecks and in the huts There were a thousand young socialists on board Lured by the adventure… …and the challenge of uncharted territory… …and the harsh climate They felt like true pioneers – Pioneers and idealists ? Yes. Very much so All enthousiastic youngsters No one over 26 years old It was a void Magadan didn’t even exist A few tents And a jetty – No houses ? – Not one We started preparing… …for the tasks and things awaiting us Everybody in his own trade Road constructors were building roads Geologists did geology Others did other things Knowing that there was gold to be found… …and other precious minerals In the few months of the year the weather permitted… …they had to churn out a complete city Out of the permafrost They had to learn how to construct houses and roads… …on solid frozen soil But when something is being built on it… …then the soil melts So initially roads sunk into the marshes… …and the houses started to tilt “Two storey buildings replace tents and barracks” Lukin developed the know-how No one before him succeeded building on permafrost He did With us not one building collapsed… …though we were building on permafrost But there weren’t enough pioneers and idealists… …like Ivan Lukin Without help the work could never be accomplished… …within a reasonable time frame – You needed workers… – Could you order them from the continent ? We obtained workers. Convicts mainly Building was done by convicts Circumstances were very hard We, volunteers had to live in tents too… …at temperatures far below zero So, the convicts lived in tents too It indeed was difficult to recruit enough volunteers… …and we lacked workforce So convicts played an important role… …in the development of this territory Stalin’s secret service… ….produced an interesting film on the Kolyma, in 1936 On the great achievements… …by educating the indigenous people… …to become true Soviet citizens “Nomadic existence draws to an end, after centuries” “Tungus are concentrated in national centers in Kolyma” “Reindeer of the sovkhoz…. …are well cared for by the Tungus ” “The most precious asset of the Tungus… …are their children ” ” So they send them to school… …knowing that the Soviets will take good care of them” “By developing this territory man is born again”… …the film claims optimistically And if not. Man will be forged all over again The film’s aim was, of course, to lure more volunteers… …to exploit the area, so essential for industrialisation… …and thus for the mere existence of the young USSR As essential, that the entire Kolyma-district… …was being subjected to the secret service… …which nobody should know And still don’t ” Building the road from the bay to the interior… ….is done by convicts… …from the Northern Labor Camps of the NKVD” This ‘agit-prop’ didn’t do much… …to provide for sufficient volunteers So it happened, that men like Ivan Lukin could order.. …lumberjacks, miners, farmers, engineers, artists… …in short, all men needed here, to be sent by Moscow The secret service easily would invent a pretext While this NKVD-film still was being produced… …the ‘Great Terror’ was unleashed Many comrades randomly were arrested at night… …detained, convicted for some reason… …and sent ‘to Siberia’… …one whispered Just a few returned This file is Vasili Vasilivitch Fjodorov’s Born in 1895, in the Leningrad District A wealthy farmer. Could read and write Convicted on November 1st, 1937… ….by a GPOE troika… …by art.58. 10 Code of Law… …of the Russian Federation to 5 years imprisonment Was part of a contra-revolutionary cell… …making systematic propaganda in his workplace Anti Soviet-propaganda The circumstances of the convicts were harsh, naturally He died of total exhaustion of the organism Paralysis of the heart through hunger and exhaustion Paralysis. Has been buried… He was interned in Tshai Uria… …and died in a road-workers labor camp In the Tshai Uria-department, District Magadan There he was buried Yes. He was buried This road had to be built… …from the coast, to the gold fields in the interior From Magadan to Susuman Five hundred kilometers in length Crawling up the mountains Sinking in the marshes Nobody knows how many Nobody knows anymore how many were sent to Siberia And how many perished And don’t blame the camp’s administration It was meticulous Every convict had his own file. With passport photos Labor records were kept… …and unanswered letters from distressed family filed The verdicts The cause of death Nobody knows how many perished… …since nobody knows how many files went missing… …in the course of time By lack of interest. Or sloppiness, or leakage Or like recently… ….with the abolishment of the Socialist Paradise No I can’t find it now Stephania Fjodrovna lives in Ust-Omchug A former labor camp… ….midway to the gold fields of Susuman Stephania was a political prisoner She was a ‘people’s enemy’ Convicted to 10 years of hard labor in 1945 At the age of 20 She’d planned to topple the Soviet state, they’d claimed But, more probable, she guesses… …because she was a rich farmer’s daughter At home in the Ukraine, they’d possesed two cows She likes to show us -and her son- her labor camp It’s not far from the village, she says It’s only a 50 kilometers up into the mountains Here it all poured down It’s all broken now See. This is it This must have been badly constructed Here the water streamed down, to overthere Look ! There is still a mat of rubber To prevent gold flushing away, they used these mats The metal got stuck in these small pits All metal. Tin. Gold There they used these mats for It looks like an outing for Stephania… ..which it is, of course Never having a reason to leave Ust-Umchug… …now she has Here was the camp. The barbed wire proves it She points. She laughs. She tells lots of anecdotes She submerges herself in her memories No one else in the village… ….ever showed any interest in her story For every one had stories -far worse – You walked this road every day ? Yes, this road Here was a beautiful terrain Now only bushes are left – What was beautiful ? Here were the houses of the guards And the garrison Totally disappeared – So the guards had a good life ? You bet. A splendid life We’re getting to it now There is no barrack left ! – How many barracks were there ? Eight. Eight barracks And a sick bay – How many women lived there ? Well. Around… …3 to 4 thousand women. I guess – At the same time ? – Yes, indeed There were the barracks… …and further down was the cemetery – Many died ? Yes, many died. Because of contaminated fish Or the cold. Or the hard labor – Was it cold ? Terribly cold. 52 or 53 Centigrade below zero And colder Behind the mountains, in the next valley… …remarkably many more perished Urianium was mined there But nobody was made aware It was a state secret It was uranium used for the first Soviet atom bomb Here we had to dig – How deep were the shafts ? It was open pit mining – Mama, slowly. Wait for the camera – So you had to work here ? Yes. Terrible. We slaved so hard – For how long did you do it ? For four years – Every day ? What do you think ? We should go around there – When did you arrive here ? We came in spring time Later we were sent down the slope to do wood logging… …because we all suffered from hypertension, up here We had nose bleeds. Then we were allowed to leave After that, the site was abandoned Before us there were men working here Let’s go around here – No that’s too dangerous – That house overthere, where was it for ? For the explosives engineers. And it is a weather station I don’t see a thing without glasses – So you had to work every day ? Every day. What do you think ? – Even in winter ? Every day. We were toppled by the high winds – Unbearable It was. Speaks for itself Do you understand why some feel lost in Siberia ? Stuck in Siberia Zenaida Shepel will never return to Belarus… …close to the Polish border. I guess Fifty years ago she was arrested there… …for snitching some sheets of paper…. ….from the printshop where she worked Aged 19 Perhaps she wanted to write a letter, some times A love letter, perhaps – Newspaper paper ? – Yes – Where did you need it for ? To write letters I had nothing to write on – For that, you were convicted and exiled ? Yes. As a criminal – For that, you’re here since 1946 ? Since 1947 I was deported…. Well She had stolen some paper…. ….and was convicted to 8 years hard labor in Siberia A real criminal, she was Thus, she got better treatment than political prisoners… …the ‘people’s enemies’ Thus, she got privileged jobs Thus, she was hated for that… Till today – Did you ever see political prisoners ? Yes. I did see them How they lived – They were treated badly ? Very bad They had to wear numbers – Ordinary criminals did not ? Not us There was something else To be able to survive… To get a chance to work in the green houses… To be able to borrow an uniform coat… …to, finally, get warm And because she was, of course, a young girl, too… …she did do it With an ‘agit-prop’ worker… …employed at the propaganda department in the camp Back then And she got a baby-daughter – Does your daughter help you ? Daughter… She got two kids herself…. …and her husband died – Passed away ? – Yes – I see She works as a book keeper… …there. At the… what is it…. – Your daughter works there ? – Yes – Do you ever think about your years in the camp ? God forbid – Must have been heavy… – It was She would have married him… …but he’d never asked her My youth went… I was nineteen… …when I was deported Nineteen, mind you – And at what age you were released ? 24 years old – Where did you go to, then ? Nowhere I had nothing to go to She’s forgotten a lot She doesn’t want to remember a lot Who ever was exiled to Siberia, seldom returned Dying was not the single cause Convicts were not allowed to return to their crime scene Or to their place of birth Or to the big cities Who would have provided the fare to return ? And how would they have found a job So they stayed… …and stayed working on their assigned job If need be, within the confinement of the labor camp Got married Had children Still died in Siberia, at the end of the day Forty kilometers before Susuman… …in a log cabin next to the road… …lives Igor Petelin Recently there was a fire in his house… …due to some worn wiring – Did many die in the camps ? I was interned in a camp of the Frolish Mine From the end of 1938 and all of 1939 At first we had a total of 1500 prisoners in the camp At the end of the year there were 800 survivers left Some claim that not thousands of victims… …but millions perished in Kolyma Meeting with survivers may be regarded a miracle Igor Petelin too… …was interned for years, since he was the son of… …a ‘people’s enemy’ He can’t remember when he as released… …because he stayed on his job in the camp He was such an expert mechanic… …that te guards really wanted him to stay Who could care better for their weapons’ maintenance… …than Igor Petelin ? Know what I mean ? The prosecutor had to find a pretext to accuse me He convicted me as the ‘son of a people’s enemy’ We didn’t plot anything They plotted against, us ! Get it ? Cooked up at the desks of the Prosecutor’s Office – So you were a people’s enemy too ? They invented the pretext: ‘son of’ a ‘people’s enemy’ And that was enough to convict you ? Not only me. Millions like me Count for yourself All my family was put in jail… …because my father was convicted… ….as a counter-revolutionary My mother. My brother. We all It was no secret, that… …10’s of thousands were put to hard labor in Kolyma It was one huge labor camp They came from the central parts of our country… …as well as the far ends of the Soviet Union Many perished. Others were killed Almost no one returned Victor Margaritto is a surviver too… ….even though he was never sent to a camp He survived the Soviet Union He too, hid himself… ….in his own head. Like all survivers People returning from Kolyma, spoke about it The truth had to come to light On what had happened there Parents of a friend of mine were exiled My granddad as a ‘kulak’ was put away in Solovki It never could be kept secret My father knew a lot He himself worked for the secret service Was put in jail anyhow Later, he was rehabilitated – Did he tell about it ? Yes, of course It was terrible – Could you speak about it ? Yes, at times… …if you could trust one another… ..with good friends, one could talk about it When in the 60’s, the camps closed down, more or less.. …Susuman was churned out of nothing A fresh workforce was lured to here… …with money and bonuses Much calculated marrying was going on For wealth and housing a lot can be endured… …one thinks Even the climate The dust and the mosquitoes, in the short summer The endless nights, the unbearable cold… ….and the crushing boredom, in winter Then. Much drinking is going on… …and propagating And lots of divorcing, as a result Victor Margaritto knows everything about Susuman He is a journalist He lives here, since the 1960’s. Voluntarily… …can you imagine ? I had a good friend… …he talked me into it Talked about the wide horizons, the beauty of nature… …fishing, hunting There is lots of freedom here Spiritual and physical freedom I can hike the taiga for hours on end Alone with myself I have been living such a long time here After Stalin’s demise… …the labor camps were closed… ….but fear still lingered on In the Soviet Union of the 60’s one still could not… …think aloud, for oneselves The ‘great silence’ had set in For that. One fled to the freedom of Siberia… …and the other to the certainties of the past …like love for Stalin, and what he stood for And of course we were kids. Naive All we knew was taught to us in school We sang about our legendary leaders That’s why the youth believed in Stalin and his marshalls Later, growing up, we began to understand some more – Were you a Communist Party member ? No, never. Komsomol-member yes. – Never been ? – Communist Party-member, never – Wouldn’t have been better for your career ? No. You know… A career to me, represents more… …the content of the job, itself… …the skills you employ… …as a professional, and as man That is most important The ‘Communist Party’… I’ve been disappointed too many times I saw those communists and party members misbehave To me, it would have been a disgrace… …to mingle with this kind of ‘comrades’ in the Party The monster floats on an artificial lake… ….which soil has been scraped off meticously In 3500 tons of sludge… ….hides 300 grams of gold A single day’s production during the Siberian summer Such an effort You have to believe it We haven’t seen a grain of gold yet This was the slogan:… “Gold at any cost – The Plan at any price” According to everything… …a human life did not count up These were just convicts… …and treated as such, as we find out now I’ve heard several times now… ….when digging for peat… …terrible graves are unearthed For. “The Plan… …is The Plan” These were the days of the ‘GuLag’ The era, when everybody had the chance to be exiled.. …to Siberia, for nothing, is called in Russia today:.. …”the Time of Repression” But those deporations had a goal, of course Chaos was kept under control The country raced to develop. Its leaders kept order And at rather limited production costs… …a lot was minded, dug and built During massive deportations, no people or minority… ….had time to declare independence Another line of thought, still Nostalgia Thoughts Yes. I regard Stalin as great We were educated in the learning of Lenin… – You have great esteem ? For Stalin, for sure -Still ? – Yes. I will keep having that Thanks to his leadership during World War 2… …combined with a fanatic belief in communism… …we were able to fend off fascism Karl Marx once said… – But Stalin created ‘Kolyma’ Not he, himself alone, and on his own Many were involved: Kakanovits, Beria and many others They had to find their way roughing Example communist states were not existent, yet We had to find our way in the dark Like blindfolded People had to learn, had to be corrected Karl Marx did not address such issues… – But so many were sacrificed here, just for gold ! Not for gold alone. Many perish for nothing In coal mines too. Many are caught in accidents – But for this, prisoners were deported… There were all sorts of prisoners To differentiate among those… …convicted rightly or wrongly, is very difficult There were collaborators, there were political.. – And ‘people’s enemies’ ? If they didn’t exist ! Of course there were. Saboteurs who set barns afire… …or schools. Who killed teachers Are those enemies of the people, or not ? Once… …an officer of the Red Army… …convicted ‘people’s enemy’… …after being transported from Magadan to here… …walked willfully away into the woods… …and, as he had hoped for, was shot to death. Clear ? A man of principle, who did not settle for his fate And he… …had the power to do so – And you ? We were lambs No choice We had to slave on end We had to – Did you ever resist ? I did But not much Because it was to no avail Senseless Who resisted, was sent to the ‘bunker’ What is a ‘bunker’ ? That is a barack with aggravated regime Or a labor team with aggravated regime… …in the 1930’s. In 1940 you were not hand-cuffed But circumstances were terrible anyhow Solitary confinement at night Watch dogs around Hardly any food Who resisted got Article 58.14.: Sabotage… …which meant 25 years extra, or execution These were the options To victimize oneself was useless You know what kept me going, too ? I didn’t know where my mom was imprisoned… …and I had to find out where – You are a journalist, did you ever investigate ? After you’d arrived here ? I went working for a newspaper again We were totally aware. We knew. We saw it We spoke with ex-convicts, who’d stayed behind But not writing about it Nobody took that risk It wasn’t over, yet Besides… …it was useless to write about those things Editors of local newspapers wouldn’t dare to publish… …those kind of stories Among ourselves, as journalists, we spoke about it… …being cross Worse than that. We were angry We couldn’t understand But writing Nobody dared – What did you write about ? Model workers New projects New enterprises Mines Everything important to the authorities… …region and district – Propaganda ? Yes. Pure propanda When we went out on reportage, we quarreled We even said: Fuck it. Let’s go back… …why write nonsense or blunt lies ? – How could you reconcile with this ? We needed a living What else ? – Did Stalin ruin your life ? Youngsters always have grand plans Me too: Finish school… Find work. Perhaps go to university Perhaps join the military. As it should be We were dedicated to the Revolution. Really we were. Remember, I was born during the Revolution in 1918 Vladivostok wasn’t even liberated before 1921 – Do you still believe in communism ? You know… …me… …like most people in the former Soviet Union… I was, in a sense… …someone who wanted to create something… …to mean something… …to do something… …inspired by the learnings of Marx, Engels and Lenin However… …in those days, we were not aware, this being… …illusions It was such a perfect concept An egalitarian and classless society, where… …all performed according to ability… ….and received what needed But halas. Reality was unruly Performance and revenues did not match Plus: Some were ‘more equal’ than the others… …and their needs were even bigger – Girls ! Are you well to do ? No Why ? There are no rich here – Why did you come here ? That’s a long time ago We were young… For the money… For a house… Here, it was easier than on the continent… All was easier… Being exiled… – You wanted to get rich ? Of course. Who doesn’t ? We wanted to save money For us and for our children But we don’t manage We wanted a living, first… …and save more, later So the kids could enjoy a better life – How do you manage ? We just do and try. Just surviving, in fact We have to deny us many things, on clothing, on food… – But you came here to improve Yes. Ten years ago… …the setting, the prices, the wages… …were all quite different Those days we had plenty Now we are short on everything – Looking to the future what do you see ? Nothing No light. Darkness There is no future Neither for the kids Yes. If you give them alcohol, they’d drink all day – Why do they drink so much ? I don’t know They are not interested in anything, anyhow It must be their souls… ..attracted by drink They want to loose their souls To not have any obligations Without a soul bothering them, they feel fine Who cares Nobody trains the reindeer anymore No one breaks them to the saddle No one is interested Breaking reindeer is very difficult It is a real skill We are dying out We, the elderly, are retiring There are hardly reindeer left – You think, even your people is dying out ? Of course. We are dying out

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